There are many different IoT market segments growing at different pace. Some markets have existed for a while and some are new. These solutions have been developed in vertical silos based on legacy and domain specific standards, if any. Often the suppliers develop their own data models or communication protocols that are optimized for a specific application or vertical market. As a result, this fragmented situation hinder the realization of the true economic value of IoT where billions of devices with different capabilities, connect and communicate with different services regardless of manufacturers, technologies and standards.
Sensative is all about IoT interoperability. Our platform Yggio already supports a long list of standards, with more being added upon customer requests.
Every connectivity standard have its own set of models, requirements, abilities and hardware, so every standard will have it’s own specific implementation in Yggio, usually in combination with specific gateway implementations.
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Data models and transport protocols
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, the fundamental communication protocol of the web (www).
MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/IoT connectivity protocol. It is an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport, used in many IoT solutions.
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a web transfer protocol (like HTTP) but specialized for use with constrained nodes and constrained networks in the Internet of Things.
Transport Layer Security (TLS), and its now-deprecated predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security over internet and other networks.
OSCORE is an end-to-end encryption protocol for constrained IoT standards lacking security. Data is protected in an unbroken chain from an endpoint in the network through, for instance, gateways, public networks, and IoT platforms, to a service and a user.
Authentication & Authorization
OpenID Connect is a simple identity layer on top of the OAuth 2.0 protocol.
OAuth 2.0 is the industry-standard protocol for authorization, providing authorization flows for web applications, desktop applications, mobile phones, and more.
Security Assertion Markup Language 2.0 (SAML 2.0) is a standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between security domains.
LDAP, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is a standards-based mechanism for interacting with directory servers.
Active Directory is a directory services developed by Microsoft that provides all sorts of functionality like authentication, group and user management, policy administration and more.
A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) is designed to allow long-range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery. The low power, low bit rate and intended use distinguish this type of network from a wireless WAN that is designed to carry more data, using more power.
The LoRaWAN® protocol is designed to wirelessly connect battery operated ‘things’ to the internet in regional, national or global networks, and targets key IoT requirements such as bi-directional communication, end-to-end security, mobility and localization services.
Standardised by 3GPP, and based upon the mobile networks infrastructure. Supported by all major mobile equipment, chipset and module manufacturers, NB-IoT can co-exist with 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile networks, and will be included in the 5G standards.
LTE-M is a standard published by 3GPP that addresses the requirements of the IoT. The technology provides improved functionality and bitrate compared to NB-IoT but at higher cost and battery use. LTE-M is also included in the 5G standards.
This is often called “last-mile connectivity” (even though the range usually is much less than a mile), creating a private radio network in limited space, maybe a home or building. The network is is then connected to the internet through a gateway using wired or mobile connection. From Yggio perspective it is through an integrated gateway that we support a specific standard.
The “last mile” represents >90% of the IoT connectivity potential, but the ways to achieve the connected vision are extremely diverse. Many different technologies compete in this space including international standards, domain‑specific standards (used in one specific vertical) and many proprietary technologies.
Wi-Fi® is the most commonly used wireless communications technology with 20 years on the market. The ever evolving IEEE 802.11 standard now support a multitude of IoT devices and applications.
The original wireless point-to-point connection technology has evolved to an important IoT standard with Bluetooth mesh, that enables many-to-many device communications and is optimized for creating large-scale device networks.
The Z-Wave protocol is a communications technology designed specifically for control, monitoring and status reading applications in residential and light commercial environments.
There is a long list of communication protocols used for the automation of processes (industrial or otherwise), such as for building automation, power-system automation, automatic meter reading, and vehicular automation.
Yggio today support the following:
BACnet is a data communication protocol for building automation and control networks, designed for applications such as heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning control (HVAC), lighting control, access control, and fire detection systems and their associated equipment.
Modbus Protocol is a messaging structure developed by Modicon in 1979. It is used to establish master-slave/client-server communication between intelligent devices. It is the most widely used network protocol in industrial manufacturing.
The M-Bus (“Meter-Bus”) is an European standard for remote reading of heat meters. It is also usable for all other types of consumption meters as well as for various sensors and actuators.